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布列兹的音乐太艰深,10分六合应该怎么听?
作者:   来源: 外滩画报   发布时间: 2016年01月07日  点击次数:
         文: Dan Ruccia,译: 冯坤 标签:  
 
       3 月 26 日是皮埃尔·布列兹的 90 岁生日。他被公认为 20 世纪最伟大的作曲家和指挥家,但与此同时,他的音乐往往令人生畏。对大多数人来说,布列兹就像一个高高在上的“神”,你只能仰视他,却无法接近他。那么,10分六合为什么还需要布列兹的音乐?10分六合又该如何理解他的音乐?最近,indyweek网站的一篇文章谈论了这一点。作者表示,只要你坚持聆听,还是可以从一团“乱麻”中理出头绪,并受益匪浅。


法国作曲家、指挥家皮埃尔·布列兹(1925326-201615日)

10分六合        zaiyanzoutadediergangqinzoumingqushi,faguozuoqujiapiaier·buliezizhidaoyanzouzheyao“jueduibimian……neixietongchangbeichengwei‘baohanqinggandexiweichuli’(expressive nuances)”。tagaosutamen,qiaqiaxiangfan,yanzoutingqilaiyaojijuchongjili、kuangbao、zhiliposui、cier、fennubing“yufayemanhezhijiehua”。

      “bashengyinfensui。”tabuchongshuo。

       buliezidejiepaijingchangzaiyigexiaojieliduocibianhua,tadejiezoucucaobingqiecanchabuqi。tabameimiaodexuanlvhuaweiqingxieyuheibaiqinjianjianyichanghaowuguilvdeyinfuzhouyu,zaibianyuanyinzhijiandakuadudifeiyue。tadeheshengyuyanshiyixiangguanyubuhexiedeyanjiu。zheixiezuopinyanzouqilaishirucikunnan,chuanwengangqinjiayifeng·luoliaoyixiangdaoyaoyanzoutajiukuleqilai。

       tingqilaihenyouren,bushima?

       jinqi,gangqinjiapiaier-luolang·aimaerhetamala·sidifennuoweiqi(tamara stefanovich)zhengzaibeimeijuxing“qingzhubuliezi 90 dashou”degangqinxunyan,yanzoubuliezineixiechuangzuokuaduzhangdaliushiyuniandezuopin。

       aimaer 19 suishijiujiarulebuliezide“ensemble intercontemporain”shineiletuan,tayi 20 he 21 shijiyinledequanweiyanzouzhewenmingyushi;sidifennuoweiqishiaimaeryiqiandexuesheng,yejijudangdaiyinletianfu,liangrenyouzhexiangtongdepianhao。cici,tamenlunliuyanzouyinlehuidequmu,bingjiangyigangqinerzhongzou《jiegouⅱ》(structures book 2)shouwei。

10分六合        yaopouxibuliezidefuzaxing,xuyaochixudeyindao。ertamenliangrenshizuihaoderenxuan。

       10fenliuhexiwangnengshuochuyigejiandandebanfa,babuliezideyinlebiandexiangxifanggudianyinlezhongdeqitaweidade“b zitoudezuoqujia”yiyangwenheershuxi。danshi10fenliuhebuneng——buliezigengjiejinbabite(babbit)、beiliao(berio)heboteweisier(birtwistle),erbushibahehebolamusi。

10分六合        tadeyinlejiansenandong,20 shijizhongqiyongxiandehenduozuoqujiadoushiruci。jinguan10fenliuhezijiyeshizuoqujia,10fenliuheyebunengmeicidouqingsongdidongchabuliezilequzhongneimigongyibandejiegou。youshihou10fenliuherenweitadeyinleyoububiyaodefuzaxingheduikangxing。

       buguo,haishiyouyigefangfanengbangzhu10fenliuhelijiebuliezideyinle: tadeyinleshiyouyiyide。tayaobiaodamouzhongdongxi,buguanqiyuyanduomenandong。danshizai10fenliuheshenruzuanyanzhiqian——huozheshuozaihaowuzhunbeideqingkuangxiaqutingaimaerhesidifennuoweiqideyinlehuizhiqian——zuihaoxianlejieyidian 20 shijideheshengfazhanshi。

10分六合        10fenliuheshenbiantingdaodedaduoshuyinleyibandouzaimougediaoxingzhong,tamenshihualixuanlvpianzhangdejizhun。tanengtishi10fenliuhetingdaodeshishenmehexian,hexiandezouxiang,yijixuanlvdegoucheng。zaigudianyinleli,zheijiaozuo“common practice”。danzai 19 shijixiabanye,zuoqujiamenchedidikuodale“diaoxing”dehanyi。tamenbuzouxunchanglu,ruohualediaoxing,cuchenglebuhexieyindeboxing。

       20 shijichu,zuoqujiamenjiukaishiwanquanfangqishangwentidaodezheige“common practice”,xunzhaonengbaoronggengduofuzabuhexieyindexinfangshilaizuzhiyindiao。zai 1907 nianjingliyinleweijihou,anuoerde·xunbogefamingleyigewanquanpaokaiheshengdexitong。1920 niandaichu,xunbogekaishixitonghuatadeshijian,goujianzheigebeitachengwei“shieryintixi”huo“xuliezhuyi”detixi。

10分六合        zaizheigetixizhong,zuoqujiachuangzaoleyigexulie,bajianpanshangde 12 geyinfurenyipaixu,meigexulielideyinfubunengzhongfu。zheigexitongbaoshouzhengyi,danxunbogedequexiyinleyiquanzhitongdaohedeyonghuzhe,baokuoandong·weiboenheaerban·beierge,tamendourenweixuliezhuyihuichengweiyinlehehuluojideweilai。

10分六合        rang10fenliuhekuaijindaoerzhanjieshudeshihou: 20 suidepiaier·buliezigangyijudaobali,zaibali10fenliuhequantianjihuagenzheyinlejiaaoliweiai·meixianxuexizuoqu。buliezicaiyonglexunbogedexitongzuoweitayinledejichu,danxiangzaizheiyijichushangchuangzaogengjijindeyinle。tarenweiqianrendouquefalezhihuishangdeyongqi,meinengrenshidaotamenzuopinguangkuodezaichuangzuokongjian。tatibixiexiawushulunzhanpengjixunbogehebatuoke,sitelawensijihebeiergedengren,shenzhiliantazijidelaoshiyebunengxingmianyuci。

       takaishijingxinchuangzuoyizhongyinleyuyanlaishixiantadelantu——gaibianyinfuyujiezouzhijiandeguanxi。yiwangjiezouzongshizuoweipuzaixuanlvxiamiandebeijing,ertaquebajiezouzuoweizuoqudezhuyaocanshu,shejilenengyushieryintixidejingquexiangpipeidefuzadejiezoujiegou。

10分六合        yinlelilunjiabaoluogeleifusi(paul griffiths)chengta“yonghuimiequchuangzao”,youzheizhongbumixinquanweideqipozhutui,tadechuangzuojinzhanruhuorutu,zuichudeliangbugangqinzoumingquyeshizaineigeshiqiwanchengde。pingjiezhezheizhong“huimiedeliliang”,tachengweizhanhouyinlejiedehexinrenwuzhiyi。

       zheiyouba10fenliuhedaihuineigezuichudewenti: weishenmelingtingzheixiezongxiangzheyaopohuaiqianrenyinledezuopinshilingrenyukuaide?suoyouzheixiexuwuzhuyidejiazhishishenmeni,zaiyuzheizhongyinlejinidailaileisiyu“zhanzaiyigeliushashenyuanliquemeiyoujiumingdaocao”dewuzhuganma?

10分六合        daanhenjiandan: buliezideyinle——jiuxiangtadepengyou、ouranyinledebizuyuehan·kaiqiyiyang,yaoqiu10fenliuhezhongxinsikaogairuheqingting。meiyoulechangguidexuanlv、heshenghejiezou,10fenliuhebudebugaibianyuanlaideguanzhuxiguan,tiyanyizhongxindeyinlecengci。nihuikaiqizhijuemoshi,jiuxiangbuliezixixingoujiangangqindewulikongjianneiyang。tayongjisudeshengjiangyinxingzaijianpandebutongbianyuanyinzhijiantiaoyue。

       jiexialai,niyexujiuhuiyishidao,nibuxuyaodanxincuoguorenhedandudeyinfu。yinweizheixiesucaigenzhiyuxuliezhuyi,meigeyinfu、meizhongjiezoudoushixitonghuade。zheigeshieryinshijianzhongdeqixiang(vagary)zhizaiyuanshimouzhongtedingdexijie——zainijihuyaotingdaotamendeshihouyishanerguo。

       xiangfan,nihuikaishiganshouzheixunhuandexingzhuang、xingtaihezhiti。meiyigefanfudouyouweimiaodebutong,dannijianjiannenglijiebuliezishiruhebianhuantamende,tamenzenyangfazhan,zenyangbiciduihua……“zheixiequzibianchenglehuotihuoxingqun”,buliezihuiyongzheizhongbiyulaimiaoshutadedisangangqinzoumingquhe《jiegouⅱ》。

       yeyouyixiepianduan,dangbuduanbianhuadejiezouduanzanningguzaiyigegudingxingtai(pattern)shi、huozhexingchengleyixiepiaoliangyinxiang(sonority)shi,tadeyinletingqilaijiuxiangzaitiaowu。zheixieshikechangchangshaozongjishi,yinweibulieziyouhuixunsubatamendaluan,zuoweitaxiayibo“shengbodasha”(sonic edifice)desucai。dandang10fenliuhelingtingbuliezideshihou,zheixiewangwang10fenliuhexiangquzhuazhudeshunjian。

       10fenliuhefaxian,tashanyuchuangzaoyixiejuyougudongxingdeshengxiang,suirantayouhenkuaiyuanliletamen。meiyourenheyigetongshidaizuoqujiadezuopinnenggouyutadeyinlejiagouxiangtibinglun。tadefuzaxiucitixizhixiangleyizhong“bukeneng”——jiuxiang《fennigenshoulingye》(finnegans wake),jiekexun·bolakedehuazuohuoshisaimouer·beiketedexijuyiyang,buliezideyinleyexuyaonaixin,heyidiannengdikang“bushigan”deyizhi。

       dan10fenliuhexiang,ruguonijianchilingting,yidinghuidedaofenghoudehuibao。

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